Work-Based Learning is an educational approach that uses workplaces to structure learning experiences that contribute to the intellectual, social, academic, and career development of students. These experiences supplement school activities that apply, reinforce, refine, or extend the learning that occurs at a worksite.
The workplace is considered an active learning environment where students acquire new knowledge and skills, learn by doing, and constantly improve their abilities. Academic knowledge and skills learned through years of classroom instruction are applied to real life situations.
Benefit to Learners
Work-based learning activities can help young people to:
- Strengthen academic skills;
- Realize the relevance of a rigorous education and understand the need for academic success;
- Gain real workplace experience and an understanding of career and educational options;
- Become motivated to expand their learning through the hands-on approach of applying knowledge and gaining skills; and
- Work with positive adult role models.
Benefit to Employers
Employers play an active role in shaping the quality of their future workforce when they participate in work-based learning activities. WBL can help business and industry in the following ways:
- Expose young people to unfamiliar careers/businesses/industries
- Expose young people to the needs and expectations of a business;
- Improve the skill level of workers through their interaction with young people;
- Improve community relations by helping local youth with employment and education;
- Reduce employee training costs and turnover; and
- Improve morale and management skills of adult workers.
Key Components of Work-Based Learning Experiences
The key components for any work-based learning experience are:
A. Applied, contextual learning
B. Integration of worksite instruction with technical and school based instruction
C. Alignment of academic standards with industry and national skill standards
D. Meaningful learning experiences with well-defined tasks and outcomes
E. Links to continued employment and/or further education
The work-based learning coordinator in collaboration with an employer is responsible for the operation and management of a program including essential written documentation on each student enrolled in the program. The documentation that needs to be maintained for each student is an Individual Training Agreement, Individual Training Plan, Student Performance Evaluations, Work-Based Learning Coordinator’s Observation Reports, and Safety Training Records. As an employer of a student enrolled in a work-based learning program, the importance of this documentation cannot be overstated.
Individual Training Agreement
The Individual Training Agreement is a prepared document used to describe the length of the work experience, the hours and starting wages (or appropriate documentation for non-paid experiences), and the responsibilities of the student, work-based learning coordinator, employer, worksite supervisor and parent/guardian. This agreement protects all parties engaged in a work-based learning experience. This document requires the signatures of all parties prior to a student beginning at the worksite.
Standard information contained in a work-based learning training agreement should be student’s name and age; school’s name, address, and phone number; work-based learning coordinator’s name; employer’s or agency’s name, contact person, and phone number; and starting wages. Specific information may be determined by local policy.
The responsibilities of the student, parent/guardian, school, employer, and supervisor need to be well defined and written in the agreement. In addition, the persons responsible for all areas of safety training need to be identified. For example:
EMPLOYER/WORKSITE SUPERVISOR ROLE
EMPLOYER/WORKSITE SUPERVISOR ROLE
Employer and Worksite Supervisor
The employer’s and worksite supervisor’s responsibilities include:
- Follow all federal and state child labor laws.
- Provide worker’s compensation for the student for all paid hours worked (for paid experiences).
- Pay at least the state minimum wage for hours worked by the student (for paid experiences) unless student qualifies for an exception to the minimum wage laws in which case documentation must be completed and on file.
- Sign and implement the Individual Training Agreement and Training Plan.
- Provide instruction in the competencies identified in the curriculum and document the student’s progress.
- Conduct progress reviews with the student (which may include parent, guardian and school personnel) and provide copies of those reviews to the school.
- Treat a student as a regular employee.
- Ensure that no student is excluded from participation in the program on the basis of race, color, creed, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or marital status, in regard to public assistance or any other protected groups under state, federal or local Equal Opportunity Laws.
- Protect a student from sexual harassment.
- Provide a student with safety training, safe equipment, and a safe and healthful workplace that conforms to all health and safety standards of federal and state law (including the Fair Labor Standards Act, OSHA, and MN Child Labor Laws).
- Properly train a student on the safe operation of any equipment prior to use.
Employer/Supervisor and Student Relationship
The role of the employer/supervisor in any work-based learning experience is a very important one. The experience may be a young person’s first exposure to a workplace that may seem very foreign to him or her. Also, it may be the first time an employee has had contact with a student in a workplace setting.
The employer/supervisor has a lot of expertise to share and will guide the young person in learning both technical and core employability skills competencies. A work-based learning experience can be very rewarding for both the student and the adult.
Following are some basic strategies the employer/supervisor can use to have a meaningful experience with a student:
1. Get to know the young person – Ask a student about their career dreams, goals, strengths, limits, and needs. This information will help the employer/supervisor identify what kinds of activities will be most beneficial to the student. For example, in a job shadowing experience where a young person has a general interest in a health career, they should spend time in a variety of departments within a health care facility.
2. Emphasize safety and health at all times – Young people are often not aware of the dangers in the workplace, and will need instruction in general safety rules, machine safety and required health precautions. Frequent reminders to the student are important to their health and well-being.
3. Provide opportunities for the student to make some decisions regarding the work-based learning experience – A student’s level of involvement may be increased through allowing the young person to express their choices and interests. Learning to make informed decisions helps a student grow as an individual.
4. Teach the student about workplace culture – As a new experience for a young person, they need to learn about the culture of the business/organization, such as the rules, customs and standards. An employer/supervisor can encourage a student’s curiosity through inviting questions and providing opportunities for exploration.
5. Be a positive role model – A young person is easily influenced by what is occurring around them. As a role model, the employer/supervisor should use proper techniques and practices, including respectful language.
6. Be clear with directions/instructions – Young people need to learn about the company/organization’s policies as soon as possible. A workplace orientation should be provided, preferably the first day of the experience. Directions and instructions for tasks or use of equipment need to be clear and straightforward. The information may need to be repeated. It is important to make sure the young person understands the “what” and “why”. If possible, allow them to work out the “how”. This can equip a young person with problem-solving skills and teach them to take responsibility for the outcomes of their actions. (An exception to the “how” is where there is an issue of student safety.)
7. Provide information on careers to the young person – The work-based learning experience is an ideal opportunity for the student to understand the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue work in a particular career field. The employer/supervisor’s perspective will not only assist the young person to make an informed career choice but better understand the relevance and importance of education.
General Characteristics of Young People
A. Students have a very strong need to feel respected. They usually will not listen to people who they perceive to be lecturing or “saving” them.
B. Fairness is an important value for students.
C. Some young people believe it is “cool” to be passive. This may appear as a lack of curiosity or engagement but in reality their interest level is high.
D. Young people are often “idealistic” even if their own situation may not be very positive.
E. Be aware that students may frequently surprise you.
Additional Tips for Supervising Youth
- Introduce the young person to other employees in the workplace;
- Clearly explain the operations of the job and the functions of the organization;
- Give the student clear job specifications, verbal and written;
- Speak directly to the young person when giving instructions;
- Give honest feedback;
- If it appears the student needs help in finishing a task, ask if they need help, and if they do, ask how you can help;
- Be a good listener;
- If the young person displays inappropriate behavior, speak with them;
- When possible, include the student in company-wide activities;
- Be flexible and open-minded to new ways of doing things;
- Be an example for job attitude, attendance, and performance; and
- Remember the young person is not yet an adult but is working on becoming one.
Addressing Liability/Worker’s Compensation Issues
When young people are engaged in work-based learning activities, some liability issues exist for the school and the worksite. The chart below is an overview of the liability insurance and worker’s compensation coverage that businesses, agencies, and schools should possess in order to protect these young people. These requirements are similar to those an employer would have for employees, volunteers and visitors to their facility.
(This is a general description of the requirements and does not carry the force of legal opinion. Businesses and schools should consult their insurance carriers prior to implementing a work-based learning program.)
NOTE: If a student is participating in a family owned/operated work-based learning experience or has established her or his own business, the appropriate insurance provider needs to be consulted.
Steps for Employers Engaged in Work-Based Learning Experiences
The following suggestions will assist in dealing with work-based learning liability and worker’s compensation issues:
- Consult with your insurance carrier early in the development of work-based learning experiences;
- Presume worker’s compensation coverage is necessary when the employee is a student in a work-based learning activity;
- Be prepared to provide the school representative with written documentation of your liability insurance and worker’s compensation coverage;
- Sign and implement the Individual Work-Based Training Agreement. This agreement lists the roles and responsibilities of the employer, student, parent/guardian and school representative;
- Identify with the school representative what safety and health training the school and you will be responsible for when employing a student;
- Document all the training you provide for safety and health in the workplace;
- Identify the employee/employees who are responsible for supervising the student in your worksite;
- Provide mentorship training for the employee/employees supervising a young person;
- Prevent students from engaging in any work that is prohibited by the U.S. Department of Labor Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and the Nebraska Child Labor Laws; and
- Request the school representative visit the worksite prior to placing the student and during the terms of the Individual Training Agreement.
Federal Employment Relationship Defined
Employment means engagement in an occupation for money or other valuable consideration. Generally speaking, a student in a work-based learning situation is an employee unless all of the following criteria are met:
1. The employer derives no benefit from the activities of the student.
A student receives ongoing instruction at the worksite and is closely supervised throughout the experience. Any productive work performed is offset by the burden to the employer for the training and supervision provided. The Department of Labor uses the following three-part test to determine there has been no benefit to the employer:
a. There has been no displacement of employees, vacant positions have not been filled, employees have not been relieved of assigned duties, and the students are not performing services.
b. The student is under continued and direct supervision by either a representative of the school or by an employee of the business.
c. The period of time spent by the student at any one site or in any one distinguishable job are of limited duration.
2. The experience is of short duration.
a. Career exploration is generally limited to 5 hours per job experienced
b. Career assessment is generally limited to 90 hours per job experienced.
c. Work-related training is generally limited to 120 hours per job experienced.
3. The student and parent/guardian understand that the student is not entitled to a job at the end of the experience.
VOLUNTEER TIME and NONPAID EMPLOYMENT
The determination of compensation for work is separate from the determination of an employment relationship.
Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, individuals may work for charitable, civic or religious nonprofit enterprises without expectation of compensation and be considered a “volunteer” not included in the definition of “employee.” When determining ordinary volunteerism, the US Department of Labor considers a variety of factors, including the nature of the entity receiving the services, the receipt by the worker of any benefits from those for whom the services are performed, whether the activity is less than a full-time occupation, whether regular employees are displaced, whether the services are offered freely without pressure or coercion, and whether the services are of the kind typically associated with volunteer work.
In most cases, training that is directly related to work is considered part of the employment relationship and should be compensated. Time spent in training or preparing for training outside regular working hours shall be considered hours of work if the training is required to bring performance up to a fully successful, or equivalent level, or to provide knowledge or skills to perform new duties and responsibilities in the employee’s current position.
Time spent in an organized program of related, supplemental instruction by employees working under an apprenticeship or similar program may be excluded from working time if: a) the student is employed under a written agreement, and b) such time does not involve productive work or performance of the student’s regular duties.
The Fair Labor Standards Act provides for the employment of certain individuals at wage rates below the minimum wage. These individuals include student-learners (career and technical education students), as well as full-time students employed by retail or service establishments, agriculture, or institutions of higher education. Also included are individuals whose earning or productive capacity is impaired by a physical or mental disability, including those related to age or injury, for the work to be performed. Employment at less than the minimum wage is designed to prevent the loss of employment opportunities for these individuals. Certificates issued by the Department of Labor’s Wage & Hour Division are required for this type of employment. The youth minimum wage, authorized by the FLSA, allows employers to pay employees under 20 years of age a lower wage for 90 calendar days after they are first employed.
FLSA STANDARDS and QUESTIONS
Understanding the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
1. When is a work-based learning experience subject to FLSA?
Work-based experiences that do NOT meet all student-learner criteria referenced under Federal Employment Relationship are employment relationships and subject to FLSA. According to the FLSA, the definition of “to employ” is “to suffer or permit to work.” Case law states that an employment relationship “does not depend upon the level of performance or whether the work is of some educational and/or therapeutic benefit.”2 The WBL coordinator and employer must review the criteria very carefully before deciding the type of relationship that will exist between the employer and the young person.
2. When is a student who is employed “covered” under FLSA?
FLSA covers employees who are performing work for any type of enterprise that is either
A. Engaged in interstate commerce
B. Producing goods for interstate commerce, or
C. Handling, selling, or otherwise working on goods or materials that have been moved or produced for such commerce.
3. What about state and local laws?
When there is a difference between federal or state laws/regulations or a municipal ordinance, the strictest standard applies.
4. What are the implications of an employment relationship “covered” under FLSA?
When a young person who is an employee is covered by FLSA, he or she must be paid no less than the minimum wage, receive no less than one and one-half times the regular rates of pay for each hour worked in excess of 40 hours per workweek, and be employed in accordance with child labor laws.
5. Are there standards and special provisions for employing minors?
Once it is determined that there is an employment relationship that is covered by FLSA, then certain standards and limitations apply to the employment of students according to their age. The limitations and provisions are discussed in this section.
6. Are there any exceptions to the standards?
Yes, there are exceptions for: “A student who is enrolled in a course of study and training in a cooperative career and technical education program under a state or local education authority or in a course of study in a substantially similar program conducted by a private school.”
7. What is the minimum age for employment:
A minor under 14 years of age may not be employed, except: as a newspaper carrier (if at least 11 years of age); in agriculture (if at least 12 years of age and with parental or guardian consent); and as an actor/actress or model.
8. Are minors permitted to drive on-the-job?
16 year olds are NOT permitted to drive while working on-the-job; 17 year olds are permitted to perform a limited amount of driving on-the-job. See details in Employer Fact Sheet #34.
9. How important is terminology?
Very important! Contact the U.S. Department of Labor – Wage and Hour Division if you have any questions about terminology. Their role is to help clarify the definitions of apprenticeship, employment relationships, enterprise, hazardous occupations, internships, interstate commerce, stipend, trainee, and other terms used under FLSA.
CHILD LABOR LAWS
Federal and State Child Labor Laws Non-Agricultural Limited Occupations
FEDERAL – Based on protecting the safety and health/well-being of a young person, employers may not allow minors to perform work that has been determined by the Secretary of Labor to be hazardous. The Hazardous Occupation Orders (HOs) prohibit persons under the age of 18 from engaging in occupations and activities as shown on the left.
Exemptions: Student-learners aged 16 or 17 enrolled in enrolled in career and technical education programs that meet the minimum components may be employed on a limited basis in the seven HOs listed with an asterisk (*) if they are employed under a written agreement. Under this regulation, the agreement must provide that:
- Any work performed by a student in the hazardous occupation must be incidental to his or her training;
- Any work performed that is considered hazardous is intermittent and for short periods of time, only under the close supervision of a qualified person;
- Student receives safety instruction; and
- A schedule of progressive skill-building work processes is in place.
Activities Prohibited Under Hazardous Occupations Orders
HO1 - Manufacturing and storing explosives
HO2 - Motor-vehicle driving and outside helper
HO3 - Coal mining
HO4 - Logging and saw milling
HO5 - Using power-driven woodworking machines including saws
HO6 - Exposure to radioactive substances
H07 - Operating of power-driven hosting devices, including forklifts, cranes, and non- automatic elevators
HO8 - Use of power-drive metal forming, punching, and shearing machines
HO9 - Mining other than coal mining
HO10* - Slaughtering or meat-packing, processing or rendering including the use of power-driven meat slicers
HO11 - Operation of power-driven bakery machines
HO12* - Use of power-driven paper product machines including paper balers
HO13 - Manufacturing of brick, tile, and similar products
HO14* - Use of circular saws, band saws, and guillotine shears
HO15- Wreaking, demolition and ship-breaking
HO16* - Roofing operations
HO17* - Excavating including work in a trench as a plumber
The above list provides a general overview. To obtain a list of specific occupations, hazardous equipment and a detailed explanation contact:
Nebraska Department of Labor | 402.471.9000
Child Labor Law Changes
Recent changes to the FLSA Child Labor Laws became effective February 14, 2005. These changes expand protections for youth working in restaurant cooking, roofing, driving and other areas. Read federal child labor provisions for detailed information.
The following fact/information sheets can be downloaded from the U.S. Department of Labor website.
- Restaurant Employer Self-Assessment Tool
- Fact Sheet #2A: Rules for Employing Youth in Restaurants and Quick-Service Establishments under the FLSA
- Fact Sheet #34: Hazardous Occupations Order No. 2 Youth Provision and Driving Automobiles and Trucks under the FLSA
- Fact Sheet: Teen Driving on the Job
- Grocery Employer Self-Assessment Tool
- Fact Sheet #38: Application of the Federal Child Labor Provisions of the FLSA to Grocery Stores
- Fact Sheet #58: Cooking and Baking under the Federal Youth Employment Provisions of the FLSA
- Fact Sheet #37: Application of the Federal Child Labor Provision to Amusement Parks and Recreation Establishment
- Fact Sheet #52: The Health Care Industry and Youth Employment
- Fact Sheet #57: Hazardous Occupations Order No. 12 Rules for Employing Youth and the Loading of Power-Driven Balers and compactors under the FLSA
- Fact Sheet: Roofing and Work On or About a Roof
- Construction Employer’s Quick Guide to Teen Worker Rules
Driving “On-the-Job” Restrictions
NO employee under 17 years of age may drive on public roadways as a part of his or her job if that employment is subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act. (FLSA). (A 16-year-old, who holds a valid driver’s license, may drive to and from work.)
A 17-year-old may drive on public roadways as a part of his or her job ONLY if all of the following requirements are met:
- The driving occurs only during daylight hours;
- The 17 year old holds a valid driver’s license for the type of driving being performed;
- The driver has successfully completed a state-approved driver education course;
- The driver has no record of any moving violation at the time of hire;
- The vehicle being driven does not exceed 6000 pounds gross vehicle weight; and
- The car or truck driven has seat belts for the driver and any passengers and the employer has instructed the youth that the seat belts must be used when driving the vehicle.
Driving “on-the-job” MAY NOT involve:
- Towing vehicles;
- Routine deliveries or routine sales; Deliveries which are urgent or time-sensitive;
- Transporting property, goods, or passengers for pay;
- Transporting more than three passengers
- (including co-workers) at one time;
- Driving more than a 30 mile radius beyond the work site; and
- Driving more than two trips away from the primary work site in any one day for either a) or b) below;
a) To deliver the employer’s goods to a customer;
b) To transport passengers, other than co- workers.
Driving must be only occasional and incidental to the job.
This means driving no more than one-third of work time in any workday and no more than 20 percent of work time in any one work week.
NEW Minimum Wage Law Changes*
- $9.00 per hour effective 1/1/16
- Employers having 4 or more full-time or part-time employees are subject to minimum wage law
- People compensated by tips ($2.13 per hour plus gratuities. Sum of $2.13 plus tips must equal or exceed $9.00 per hour or employer must make up the difference.
The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act requires some employers to pay overtime for all hours worked in excess of 40 per work week. These employers include:
- employers that produce or handle goods for interstate commerce;
- businesses with gross annual sales of more than $500,000;
- businesses that were covered before April 1, 1990, under the $250,000 ($362,500 retail and services) dollar volume test; and
- hospitals and nursing homes, private and public schools, federal, state and local government agencies.
Laws Affecting 14 and 15 Year Olds
Additional Activities Prohibited Under Child Labor Regulation 3
In addition to the Hazardous Occupations listed on the previous page that are prohibited for minors under the age of 18, Child Labor Regulation 3 prohibits the employment of persons aged 14 and 15 in the occupations and activities listed below:
- Manufacturing, mining, and processing
- Most transportation jobs
- Cooking (new regulations apply)
- Work in warehouses and workrooms
- Public messenger service
- Work on construction sites other than in the office
- Any job involving power-driven machinery including hoists, conveyor belts and lawnmowers.
No Exceptions to Occupation Limitations
Occupation limitations are strictly enforced for 14 and 15-year-old youth with no exceptions or exemptions. The student-learner provisions applicable to some Hazardous Occupations for youth 16 and 17 years of age DO NOT apply to minors under the age of 16.
Work Experience and Career Exploration Programs (WECEP)
This is a one- or two-year federally approved transition program designed for students, ages 14 and 15, who have had difficulties with their school experiences. Variances may be granted by the Administrator of the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division under limited conditions to a student employed under a WECEP program to engage in some activities otherwise prohibited by Child Labor Regulation 3. This DOES NOT include the Hazardous Occupation orders.
Hours of Work for 14 and 15 year olds State Law (all employers):
- 18 hours or less per week when school is in session
- 3 hours or less on a school day
- Not during school hours (except if the student is enrolled in WECEP)
- Not before 7 AM or after 7 PM (9 PM is permissible from June 1 through Labor Day)
- 8 hours or less per day on a non-school day
- 40 hours or less per week during non-school weeks
Minors in Agricultural Employment
Child Labor Laws | Agricultural Employment
Agricultural work includes farming in all branches, such as the cultivation and tillage of soil; the production,cultivation, growing and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodities; dairy production; the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry; and any practices (including forestry or lumbering operations) performed by a farmer or on a farm as incidental to, or in conjunction with, such farming operations, including the preparation for market, delivery to storage, market or carriers for transportation to market.
(A more detailed explanation of agricultural work activities and exemptions can be found in 29 CFR 780. The U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division Office can assist in determining whether proposed jobs for students in an agricultural career field will constitute agricultural work for purposes of the FLSA.)
Eligibility for exemptions must adhere to the following criteria:
Student-learners must be employed under a signed written agreement among the school, employer, student and parent/guardian that provides for:
- Any work in a hazardous occupation to be incidental to the training;
- Any work in a hazardous activity to be intermittent and for short periods only under the direct and close supervision of a qualified person;
- On-going safety instruction; and
- A specific schedule of progressive work processes.
Hours of Work for Minors
- Persons 16 years of age and older may be employed in any farm job at any time.
- Persons 14 and 15 years of age may be employed outside school hours in any agricultural occupation not declared hazardous.
- With written parental consent, 12 and 13 year olds may be employed outside school hours in any non- hazardous job on the same farm where their parents are employed.
- Minors under 12 years of age may be employed outside school hours in any hazardous job with written parental consent but only on farms not subject to the minimum wage provision of the FLSA.
Minors of any age may perform work at any time on a farm owned or operated by the minor’s parents or person standing in place of the parents.
Prohibited Hazardous Occupations/Activities in Agriculture
The Secretary of Labor has designated Hazardous Occupations that apply to 14 and 15 year olds engaged in agricultural work, and to those younger children permitted to work on farms under limited circumstances:
- Operating or assisting in the operation of specified machinery and equipment;
- Working in a yard, pen, or stall occupied by specified animals;
- Felling, loading, bucking or skidding timber more than six inches in diameter;
- Working from a ladder or scaffold at a height of over 20 feet;
- Driving a vehicle transporting passengers or riding on a tractor;
- Working in certain silos, storage areas and manure pits; and
- Handling toxic chemicals, blasting agents and anhydrous ammonia.
EXEMPTIONS: Exemptions from the hazardous occupations order applying to tractors and certain other farm machinery apply to 14 and 15 year old students enrolled in state approved career and technical education programs and holders of a certificate completion of training under 4-H programs.
WAGES: Students engaged in agricultural work must be paid the minimum wage unless an exception applies. Full-time students engaged in agricultural work may be paid a subminimum wage of 85 percent of the minimum wage. In addition, under the exemptions listed in Section 13 of the FLSA, small farmers, who employed fewer than 500 person days the previous quarter, may be exempt from paying their employees the minimum wage.
Child Labor Bulletin 102: Youth Employment Provision for Agricultural Occupations under FLSA; (Revised May 2004) contains detailed information on laws specific to youth employed in agricultural occupations.
Additional Legal Requirements
Americans with Disabilities Act
Employers with 15 or more employees must comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA requirements which relate to work-based learning are briefly outlined here.
- All government facilities, services and communications must be accessible and consistent with the requirements of Sec. 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
- Public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, theaters, doctors’ offices, pharmacies, retail stores, museums, libraries, parks, private schools, and day care centers, may not discriminate on the basis of disability.
- Private clubs and religious organizations are exempt. Reasonable changes in policies, practices, and procedures must be made to avoid discrimination.
- Physical barriers in existing facilities must be removed, if removal is readily achievable. If not, alternative methods of providing the services must be offered, if they’re readily achievable.
- All new construction in public accommodations, as well as in “commercial facilities” such as office buildings, must be accessible.
- Alterations must be accessible.
- Auxiliary aids and services must be provided to individuals with vision or hearing impairments or other individuals with disabilities, unless an undue burden would result.
- Companies offering telephone service to the general public must offer telephone relay service to individuals who use telecommunications devices for the deaf (TDDs) or similar devices.
- Employers may not discriminate against an individual with a disability in hiring or promotion if the person is otherwise qualified for the job.
- Employers can ask about one’s ability to perform a job, but cannot inquire if the person has a disability, or subject a person to tests that tend to screen out people with disabilities.
- Employers will need to provide “reasonable accommodations” to individuals with disabilities. This includes steps such as job restructuring and modification of equipment.
- Employers do not need to provide accommodations that impose an “undue hardship” on business operations.
Protected minority groups, as defined under Federal Executive Order, include African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and women. Educational institutions and employers must not discriminate on the basis of race, religion, ethnicity, national origin, age, disability, sex, marital, or veteran status. Written training agreements between schools and businesses should include an affirmative action statement.
All employees and students participating in a WBL program have the right to work in an environment which respects human dignity and is free from sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment includes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, sexually motivated physical contact, or other verbal or physical conduct or communication of a sexual nature when:
Submission to that conduct or communication is made a term or condition of obtaining employment/participation in the program;
Submission to or rejection of that conduct or communication is used as a factor in decisions affecting the individual’s employment/participation in the program;
That conduct or communication has the purpose or effect of substantially interfering with an individual’s employment or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive employment environment, and company management knows or should know of the existence of the harassment and fails to take timely and appropriate action.
Students should be taught how to recognize sexual harassment and abuse. They should also receive training regarding the school’s and business’s sexual harassment policy and reporting procedure.
The Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) protects information about students and their records from public disclosure. It is important for employers to receive information (e.g., social security numbers, school grades, and courses taken) prior to a student entering or while they are participating in a WBL program. This information cannot be provided to the employer without a proper release of information being signed. When the student is under 18 years of age his/her legal guardian must sign the Release of Information Form. Students over 18 years of age (as long as they are their own guardian) may sign their own release of information form. Electronic Privacy Information Center.
It is recommended that students involved in WBL activities in areas where there is potential contact with body fluids or wastes receive the Hepatitis A and B series vaccine. Students working in the food service area are also recommended to have the Hepatitis A vaccine.
The following is an excerpt taken from the AMA’s Administrative Guide titled: For your Protection OSHA Regulations on Blood Borne Pathogens: Employers are required to offer the Hepatitis B vaccine free of charge to personnel at risk. Employees, however, are not obligated to receive the vaccine. Any at-risk employee who wishes not to receive it must sign a copy of the OSHA’s Hepatitis B vaccine declination. (Legal guardians must sign for a WBL student who is under 18 years of age.) If the person later decides to receive the vaccine, the employer must again offer the series free of charge. Technically, in non-paid work experiences the school is the employer and must provide the vaccine.
MANAGING THE RISKS
Young people often lack the life experiences and workplace exposure of older employees resulting in a lack of knowledge and common sense regarding safety issues. Employers who hire young people should take the following safety precautions:
1. Comply with all child labor laws and occupational safety/health regulations that
apply to your business.
2. Assess and eliminate hazards for young workers.
3. Train young people to recognize hazards and how to use safe work practices. Routinely verify they are using safe practices.
4. Evaluate equipment used by young people to be sure it is legal and safe to use.
5. Make sure young people are appropriately supervised. This will help prevent injuries and exposure to hazardous situations.
6. Ask supervisors and experienced workers to help develop an injury and illness prevention program and to identify/resolve safety and health problems.
Employer Risk Management
A risk management program generally includes addressing the following elements:
1. Identify the perils and hazards of the activities/tasks.
2. Estimate the frequency and severity of potential loss.
3. Implement strategies to eliminate or control the potential for loss.
4. Ensure adequate resources are in place to redress loss that does occur.
Types of Work Most Often Hazardous to Young People*
- Work in or around motor vehicles
- Operation of tractors and other heavy equipment
- Work near electrical hazards e.g. overhead power lines while using poles, ladders, pipes or cranes
- Work performed in retail and service businesses where there is a risk of robbery- related injury
- Work on ladders, scaffolds, roofs or construction sites
- Work around cooking appliances
- Continuous manual lifting and lifting of heavy objects
*The majority of these are considered by the FLSA to be hazardous occupations and are not permitted.
Sample Young Worker Safety and Health Checklist for use by Employer and Employee
Employers have a responsibility to provide safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. To achieve this, it is important for each employer to ensure that each employee, upon arriving in the workplace, is fully briefed on the safety and health practices, hazards applicable to the workplace, and means of protection against exposure to those hazards. You are not required to complete or submit this voluntary checklist, but we believe you will find it helpful in achieving workplace safety.
For detailed FLSA information, visit the Youth Rules website.
This is a FedNet product, produced in cooperation with the Department of Education, Standards Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Individual Training Plan
The Individual Training Plan is a written document identifying the knowledge and workplace skills a student will learn during the work-experience placement. General and specific measureable goals and objectives for the individual student should be determined and reflected in the training plan. This needs to be a fluid training plan that is visited often with new goals and objectives added. Core employability skills should be a vital part of all these plans. The level of competency reached in a variety of areas should be assessed and documented by the employer/worksite supervisor on a student evaluation form. Additionally the training plan should identify the person or persons responsible for teaching the knowledge and skills to be acquired. This may occur at the worksite or during the classroom instruction. Safety training needs to be documented as well. For example:
Student Performance Evaluation
Students at a worksite need to have regular performance evaluations. This progress report should show evidence of a student’s level of competency in the tasks identified in the Individual Training Plan. The evaluation would include documentation of skill and standards attainment. For example:
Registered apprenticeships are innovative work-based learning and postsecondary earn-and-learn models that meet national standards for registration with the U.S. Department of Labor (or federally recognized State Apprenticeship Agencies. They provide on-the-job training while safeguarding the welfare of apprentices.
Registered Apprenticeships are innovative work-based learning and post-secondary earn-and- learn models that meet national standards for registration with the U.S. Department of Labor (or federally recognized State Apprenticeship Agencies. Registered Apprenticeship training is distinguished from other types of workplace training by several factors:
1. participants who are newly hired (or already employed) earn wages from employers during training;
2. programs must meet national standards for registration with the U.S. Department of Labor (or federally-recognized State Apprenticeship Agencies;
3. programs provide on-the-job learning and job-related technical instruction;
4. on-the-job learning is conducted in the work setting under the direction of one or more of the employer’s personnel; and
5. training results in an industry-recognized credential
Purpose/Objective: Career Exploration
Most Registered Apprenticeship opportunities include on-the-job training, and classroom instruction provided by apprenticeship training centers, technical schools, community colleges, and even distance learning. Often Registered Apprenticeship sponsors work directly with community colleges that ultimately provide college credit for apprentice.
- First and foremost, Apprenticeship sponsors develop highly skilled employees. Once established, Apprenticeship programs also reduce turnover rates, increase productivity, lower the cost of recruitment, and increase safety in the workplace/job site.
- Registered Apprenticeship is used widely across all industries and includes union and non-union programs. Registered apprenticeship sponsors include unions, but also employers, community colleges and universities, workforce investment boards, industry associations, and the military.
- Today, most Registered Apprenticeship opportunities include on-the-job training, and classroom instruction provided by apprenticeship training centers, technical schools, community colleges, and even distance learning. Often Registered Apprenticeship sponsors work directly with community colleges that ultimately provide college credit for apprentice.
- After completion of an apprenticeship program, the apprentice earns a nationally recognized credential from the Department of Labor that is portable and stackable.
Additionally, an apprentice, along with earning a paycheck throughout the apprenticeship, is also elevated to journey-worker status that leads to increased pay and upward career opportunities.
Key Legal, Safety and Health Issues
The U.S Department of Labor’s Office of Apprenticeship, works in conjunction with State Apprenticeship Agencies to administer the program nationally. These agencies are responsible for registering apprenticeship programs that meet federal and state standards; protecting the safety and welfare of apprentices; issuing nationally recognized and portable Certificates of Completion of Apprenticeship to apprentices; promoting the development of new programs through marketing and technical assistance; assuring that all programs provide high quality training; and assuring that all programs produce skilled and competent workers. In addition, a wide variety of stakeholders exist, including state organizations, industry associations, educational organizations (both secondary and post-secondary), workforce development organizations, economic development organizations, community-based organizations, and others. These stakeholders have a substantial interest in its success of Registered Apprenticeship.
Registered Apprenticeship program sponsors identify the minimum qualifications to apply for a program. The eligible starting age can be no less than 16 years of age; however, individuals must usually be 18 to be an apprentice in hazardous occupations. Program sponsors also identify additional minimum qualifications to apply, (e.g., education, ability to physically perform the essential functions of the occupation, proof of age.) All applicants are required to meet the minimum qualifications.
For more information
The US Department of Labor maintains a number of web-based resources. Here you can find our newest technical assistance products including our Quick Start Toolkit, which provides helpful steps and resources to start and register an apprenticeship program as well as our Federal Resources Playbook, which provides information on using the other Federal funds and resources to support your registered apprenticeship program. For more on Registered Apprenticeship, please visit the DoL online. Also, find out what’s happening throughout the Registered Apprenticeship system.
Cooperative Education is a structured component of the Career Education (CE) curriculum that integrates classroom instruction with productive, progressive, supervised, and paid work-based experiences in fields related to the students’ career objectives. Content is planned planned for students through a cooperative arrangement between the school and employer as a component of work-based learning. Students enrolled in cooperative education programs are required to participate in the class. Cooperative education must be supervised by a teacher who holds a Nebraska teaching certificate with a Work-Based Learning Endorsement on their teaching certificate.
Cooperative education is a structured component of the Career Education (CE) curriculum that integrates classroom instruction with productive, progressive, supervised, and paid work-based experiences in fields related to students’ career objectives. Content is planned for students through a cooperative arrangement between the school and employer as a component of work-based learning.
A Cooperative Education class is a required component of the Cooperative Education work-based experience. Students enrolled in Cooperative Education programs are required to participate in the class. Cooperative education must be supervised by a teacher who holds a Nebraska teaching certificate with a Work-Based Learning Endorsement on their teaching certificate.
The purpose of cooperative education is to provide paid work-based experiences that typically cannot be obtained in the classroom.
It is recommended that a student have completed a minimum two CTE courses in a career cluster prior to enrollment in cooperative education. The opportunity to develop academic and technical skills prior to the cooperative education experience will enhance the experience and allow the students to apply those skills while on the job.
Students participating in Cooperative Education work-based experiences are required to participate in Cooperative Education class. This course provides students with the opportunity to discuss workplace issues, submit required reports, and create/maintain a career portfolio. Students will develop additional skills in employability, ethics, personal finance, leadership, teamwork, and technical foundations in preparation for future employment or continuing education.
Nebraska Department of Education Requirements
The following are essential components of cooperative education that must be in place.
- Administrative support that ensures that instructional activities promote a quality, work-based learning experience.
- Qualified, certified Work-Based Learning Coordinator (herein referred to as the Teacher Coordinator) who manages work-based learning experiences in compliance with the Nebraska Workplace Experiences Guide, and all federal and state labor Laws.
- Student-learners that meet student selection criteria.
- Work-Based Learning Education and Career and Technical course offering(s).
- Selected work-based learning sites in fields related to students’ career objectives.
- Training agreements that stipulate the essential responsibilities and conditions of student employment.
- Training plans that list processes, knowledge, and skills that the student is expected to learn in the work-based experience.
- Supervised, work-based experience performed under the supervision of a work-place mentor and the Teacher Coordinator.
- Student evaluations by the Teacher Coordinator and employer/mentor.
- Supervisory visits at the work site for each student.
- Active Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSO).
Roles and Responsibilities
Cooperative education requires time, commitment, and collaboration of the following partners:
Students must meet with the Teacher Coordinator one class period per week to maintain all required documentation and coursework and to accommodate student and/or employer needs based on individual circumstances. They must adhere to all policies of the program and training station/agency. If transportation is not available, student drivers must have a valid Nebraska Driver’s License and must furnish proof of their liability coverage for the automobile.
Parents/Guardians should provide ongoing support to the student. They should support the goals and policies of cooperative education and assume responsibility for the conduct of the student. Parents/Guardians should attend the required orientation and must sign all required forms.
Business and community partners agree to serve as training stations/agencies providing placements for students to complete work-based learning experiences related to the student’s career objective. Supervisors are responsible for evaluating student performance, ensuring that students are scheduled to meet the minimum work hours as defined in the Training Agreement, and for providing rigorous and progressive employment experiences.
Teacher Coordinators will provide ongoing supervision to the student and integrate the student's work-site experience with learning at school. They will manage all requirements of cooperative education and teach the cooperative education class. This includes but is not limited to: Collaboration with partners, selection of students, selection of training stations, placement of students, coordination of cooperative education components, documentation and submitting required reports.
Local Education Agency (LEA) Responsibilities
It is the role of the LEA administration to ensure that instructional activities support and promote quality, work-based learning experiences. Positive administrative support is vital to the success of cooperative education and should be demonstrated in the following ways:
- Develop written policies regarding cooperative education in cooperation with the Teacher Coordinator to be adopted by the local board of education for use in decision-making situations and to provide guidance in achieving program goals.
- Assure compliance with written state and local boards of education policies.
- Provide facilities and up-to-date equipment to meet business/industry standards.
- Facilitate the procurement of instructional materials.
- Ensure that the school schedule includes cooperative education class as an essential component of work-based learning. Students enrolled in cooperative education are required to participate in the cooperative education class.
- Schedule students into a regular school schedule until they are placed in work-based experiences.
- Provide opportunities for recruitment of students through assembly programs, meetings, school visits, and other venues to create awareness of cooperative education.
- Ensure the review of student transcripts to verify eligibility for participation in cooperative education.
- Cooperate with the Teacher Coordinator and/or career and technical education teachers in the selection of prospective students and in making school records available.
- Require orientation for students and parents.
- Review student and teacher files for required forms: Training Agreement, Training Plan, Application for Enrollment, Teacher Recommendations, Weekly Wage and Hour Sheet, Training Station/Agency Visit Teacher Coordinator Summary and Student Evaluations.
- Ensure that the student selection is equitable and addresses the needs of each student.
- Ensure that students accepted shall have met the application/selection criteria for cooperative education and shall have been approved for participation by the Teacher Coordinator.
- Ensure that the Teacher Coordinator has a coordination period.
- Provide the following financial support in order to support cooperative education:
- Facilities, classroom space, furniture, and equipment required for business/industry certification.
- Travel funds for the Teacher Coordinator’s work-based training supervision.
- Other funds as designated by the state legislature.
- Place, when possible, the Teacher Coordinator on an extended contract that provides the time to plan and carry out required activities needed to manage the experience. This is essential if summer work-based learning experiences are approved by the LEA. The Teacher Coordinator must be on an extended contract if the student is enrolled in summer school and credit is awarded for summer work-based experience or if the student is involved with a Supervised Agricultural Experience Program through AFNR and is involved with summer employment or entrepreneurship programs.
Coordination of Cooperative Education Components
Coordination is the process of aligning administrative, organizational, and instructional activities to accomplish the objectives of cooperative education which requires time released from school as detailed in this manual. The Teacher Coordinator must be constantly aware of the student’s performance on the job and instructional activities for optimum results. The Teacher Coordinator ensures that normal progression takes place and that a complete series of manipulative skills is acquired. These skills are supplemented by technical and general information that will make the student a competent and well-rounded employee.
During the coordination period(s), the Teacher Coordinator performs the necessary out-of-school activities including visiting training stations, observing students at work, and consulting business individuals responsible for training the student.
Coordination functions ensure that certain essential objectives are attained:
- Prevent any possible exploitation of students.
- Determine progress of students’ performance on the job and in instructional activities.
- Help resolve problems that occur on the job.
- Increase the Teacher Coordinator’s understanding of the employer’s viewpoint.
- Check on student’s work performance, progress, habits, and attitudes.
- Evaluate the employer’s and the employee’s satisfaction with the job placement.
- Promote enforcement of the school’s policies and procedures by the employer.
- Collaborate with the employer to determine the student’s job performance.
- Make school instruction relevant to the student.
The Teacher Coordinator needs adequate time prior to the opening of school to make business/community contacts in order to facilitate the implementation of work-based learning experiences. Making contacts in the community is critical to the success of the work-based learning experience. The Teacher Coordinator will:
- Visit the business and industry leaders in the community to explain the opportunities available as well as benefits of the work-based learning experiences to the employer.
- Conduct community surveys to determine appropriate types of work-based learning sites.
- Develop a work-based learning brochure/handbook to distribute to business, industry, the school community and other stake holders.
- Promote work-based learning experiences within the school utilizing technology, brochures, displays, and articles in the school newspaper.
- Develop a communication plan to keep the community informed regularly of work-based learning experiences.
- Conduct a business/community survey to begin the development of partnerships. The optimal delivery of the survey is through person-to-person contact. The completed survey should be kept on file by the LEA. The business/community survey results serve the following useful purposes:
- Identify employment potential in the community.
- Locate suitable training stations for work-based learning students.
- Identify the knowledge and skills needed by the responding business/industry.
- Plan an employer/employee event with students during the school year to honor employers who offered work-based learning experiences for students.
- Secure employment for participating students.
Teacher Coordinator Responsibilities
The Teacher Coordinator will:
- Create a Training Plan for each cooperative education participant.
- Complete training agreement with required signatures. It is through this training agreement that the essential functions are outlined and agreed to by the training mentor, student, Teacher Coordinator, parent, and school administrator.
- Explain to the employer prior to the first written evaluation, the Work-Based Experience Evaluation Report, that rates the student on personal qualities and job tasks as defined in the Training Plan. Then secure through face-to-face contact an evaluation at least once per grading period, at the end of the semester/term, and at other times deemed appropriate.
- Encourage students to become active in a CTSO related to their career objectives.
- Prepare students for work-based learning expectations.
- Make all students aware of the cooperative education opportunity.
- Conduct an annual follow-up with employers.
- Conduct an annual self-evaluation to facilitate continuous improvement.
- Visit the training site of each student as frequently as possible. It is recommended a minimum of one visit per month. (More frequent visits may be required to monitor students experiencing difficulties.)
- Validate that all students complete all components of the coursework required for the cooperative education class, and have completed a minimum number of hours of work-based experience per credit awarded.
- Complete and submit reports as required by the Department and LEA.
All coordination visits must be documented. A written summary is required for each visit. Each coordination visit must include documentation of a discussion with the supervisor to ensure implementation of the Training Plan and Training Agreement. When making the coordination visit, the Teacher Coordinator’s records must document:
- Duties and tasks relative to the Training Plan.
- Student’s performance on assigned responsibilities and work habits including dress, grooming, and general appearance.
- Quality and quantity of work expected and performed.
- Student’s attitude toward the job, employer, co-workers, etc.
- Student’s reaction to rewards, criticism, and disciplinary action.
- Safety conditions.
- Validation of the student’s work hours including punctuality and regularity of attendance.
- Student’s rotation through different job experiences, ensuring that they are diverse, rigorous, and progressive.
- Student’s preparation for position/job change or advancement.
- Additional opportunities for involvement in work-based learning experiences.
- Additional opportunities for partnering with Career and Technical Education; e.g., competition judge, resource speakers.
Extended Contract Responsibilities (if applicable)
It is recommended that the Teacher Coordinator should be on an extended contract that provides the time to plan and carry out required activities needed to manage the experience. Listed below are a number of activities that must be completed in preparation for the next school year if the student and community needs are to be met:
- Schedule meetings with parents.
- Coordinate summer work-based learning experience.
- Conduct business community surveys.
- Locate and secure prospective training stations.
- Conduct training for workplace supervisors/mentors.
- Provide summer coordination.
- Plan the instructional program.
- Assess and counsel students.
- Participate in professional development.
Supervision of the extended-contract period is the responsibility of the LEA. The minimum standards for an extended contract for the Teacher Coordinator beyond the regular school term require the submission for LEA approval of a written Program of Work for the extended time period. The LEA shall have on file documentation of appropriate CE activities with measurable goals and objectives and timelines for each teacher with an extended contract. The Teacher Coordinator must file a weekly itinerary in advance with the local CE administrator or principal to account for time both on and off campus.
Each step in the cooperative education process has documentation that must be completed. This documentation must be kept on file a minimum of three years (five years preferred) or as directed by LEA Policy.
Required documents must be on file in the Teacher Coordinator’s office and must include the following:
Individual Student Records:
- Application for Enrollment
- Resume (recommended)
- Interview Evaluation form
- Training Plan
- Training Agreement
- Work-based Learning Evaluation Reports (one per grading period)
- Training Station/Agency Visit Teacher Coordinator Summary
- Wage and Hour Reports
- School Regulations and Policies (signed)
- Teacher Recommendation forms including a recommendation from a career technical education course teacher related to the student’s career objective
- Interest/Aptitude Inventory (recommended)
- Safety Training Documentation
- Proof of Insurance and Emergency Contact Form
- Potential Training Station Evaluation (recommended)
- Student Evaluation of Training Site (at conclusion of work-based experience)
- Other forms as required by the LEA or training site
Other required documents:
- Business/Community Survey
- Travel Reports as required by LEA
- Record of Business Contacts
- Follow-up Records
- Extended Contract Program of Work (if applicable)
Selection of Students
The student is the most important component in work-based learning. In all cases, the Teacher Coordinator must ensure that the student has a clearly defined career objective in the cluster for which employment is being considered. Students must have the ability, aptitude, and attitude for successful employment.
In situations where students have an IEP, it is required that the Teacher Coordinator participate in the development of the Individual Education Program (IEP) prior to placement in work-based learning experiences. It is also strongly recommended that a CE teacher representing the cluster related to the student’s occupational objective also be included in the IEP development process.
Determination of Student Eligibility
The Teacher Coordinator will ensure that all requirements for cooperative education are met. The Teacher Coordinator ensures that the student:
- Has a clearly defined career objective in the career cluster for which employment is being considered.
- Possesses the knowledge, skills, behavioral qualities, and abilities required for successful employment.
- Is at least 16 years of age.
- Is physically and mentally capable of performing the essential functions of the desired work-based experience. Essential functions are responsibilities that must be performed by the position, are fundamental to the position, and cannot be reassigned to another position.
- Has successfully completed the required prerequisite course(s).
- Is classified as an 11th or 12th grader.
- Is on track for graduation.
- Has an acceptable attendance, grade and discipline record as validated by the Teacher Coordinator.
- Has completed an Application for Enrollment.
- Has provided the names of a minimum of three educators who know and are not related to the student who will complete recommendation forms including the teacher of the career cluster course.
- Has participated in a student interview to review information on the application, discuss parental/guardian support of participation, and discuss possible training stations.
- Has the ability to provide transportation to and from the training station.
- Has provided proof of current health or accidental insurance coverage and, if driving to and from the training station, proof of automobile liability insurance.
The steps for selection are:
The Teacher Coordinator will review the:
- Completed application.
- Prerequisite courses.
- Completed recommendation forms.
- Attendance record.
- Discipline record.
- Academic record.
- Eligibility criteria.
- Results of career interests, aptitudes, and skills test.
The Teacher Coordinator and applicant will:
- Review the information on the application.
- Discuss parental/guardian support of work-based learning participation.
- Discuss possible training stations.
The Teacher Coordinator will accept or reject an application based on:
- Teacher Coordinator documentation and record review.
- Student interview.
- Career objective related to a specific career cluster.
- Interest in learning the skills for the career.
- Completed recommendation forms.
A planned recruitment campaign is appropriate and necessary. Support is needed from teachers, counselors, administrators, parents, and students. Activities should be planned well in advance to articulate with overall school calendars and to have adequate time to visit feeder schools. Publicity should include purposes, career opportunities, and enrollment procedures. Designate a specific time frame for recruitment activities. The following are suggested recruitment activities:
- Classroom Visits
- Awareness Presentations
- CTSO Presentations
- Assembly Programs
- Advisory Committee Presentations
- Distribution of Enrollment Information and Applications
- Personal and Parental Contact
To be considered for acceptance in cooperative education, the student must submit a completed application. The application provides information relative to the student’s interests, abilities, and adaptability in relation to the chosen career objective.
A minimum of three completed recommendation forms must be submitted to the Teacher Coordinator. These forms must be submitted by the cluster course teachers related to the student’s career objective. Additional forms may be submitted by other teachers, counselors, or administrators.
Placement of Students
The Teacher Coordinator will ensure that all placements relate to the student’s career objective and adhere to all state and federal labor Laws. All placements must be made with consideration to business/community needs, have continued employment that provides progressive employment experiences, and have expansion of skills on the job.
Students may not be employed at businesses or industries where immediate family members will be acting as their supervisor or in any hazardous occupation as defined by labor laws. No student will be placed in a job that displaces other workers.
Selection of Training Sites
Appropriate training sites meet the following criteria:
- Complies with Office for Civil Rights regulations.
- Provides worker compensation insurance when applicable.
- Provides high-skills, high-wage, and high-demand career opportunities.
- Understands the goals and objectives of work-based learning.
- Collaborates with the Teacher Coordinator to identify the student’s additional training and teaching needs.
- Provides rigorous and progressive occupational training and educational opportunities in keeping with the student’s career objective.
- Participates in the development of the student’s training plan. The following are components of a minimum training plan:
- A list of the processes, knowledge, and skills the student is expected to learn.
- A charting of student progress.
- A description of duties and responsibilities of tasks for the student.
- An employer’s rating of the student’s tasks, duties, and responsibilities.
- Allocates time to work with the Teacher Coordinator to monitor the implementation of the training plan and evaluate the progress of the student in meeting the goals and objectives of the work-based experiences.
- Provides the required hours of work experience.
- Provides compensation information.
- Provides adequate equipment for training.
- Ensures a safe work environment and complies with local, state, and federal labor regulations related to minors.
- Assigns a mentor who is willing and able to:
- Assist the student in establishing goals relative to career development.
- Provide training to develop skills for the immediate task and future opportunities.
- Reinforce the value and relevance of academic skills.
- Advise the student in terms of job performance, growth opportunities, and networking.
- Coach the student on specific job skills.
- Reinforce the health and safety requirements in the workplace.
- Conducts a formal orientation with the student before they are placed for training. Orientation should include specific information regarding the training placement, including policies, rules, and regulations.
- Exemplifies high ethical standards.
- Meets geographic requirements as defined by the LEA.
Student Information and Reporting
The Teacher Coordinator must set high standards for students and expect high-quality work. A complete record of all grades earned must be maintained. Grades for work based experiences are determined by the Teacher Coordinator through a compilation of classroom assessments and employment performance. Written employment evaluations are given at least once per grading period, at the end of the semester/term, and at other times deemed appropriate. It is the responsibility of the Teacher Coordinator to secure ratings from the employer on the student’s personal qualities and job performance and incorporate this information into the final grades for each student. Evaluations must be reflective of progress on skills, knowledge, and processes identified in the Training Plan.
The Teacher Coordinator keeps a daily record of the student’s attendance at school and on the job. Students who are absent from school are not allowed to work on the same day. If it is necessary for a student to be absent from the job, the employer and the Teacher Coordinator must be contacted prior to the absence to provide notification and/or secure permission.
Weekly Wage and Hour Report
Compliance with all state and federal labor and minimum wage laws is required. Each student must keep a record of hours worked each day and wages earned. These records are checked weekly by the Teacher Coordinator and verified with the training station.
Education/Training Experiences are a redesign of a teacher’s aide program for students who are interested in pursuing careers in the education/training field. The experience must be conducted in partnership with course work in Education and Training or Early Childhood and supervised by the education & training instructor.
An Education and Training Work Experience is really a redesign of a teacher’s aide program for students who are interested in pursuing careers in the education field. This experience provides students with a context in which they can make a personal assessment of their commitment to pursue a teaching, professional support services, or educational leadership career. Students are assigned various education levels of experience including early childhood, elementary, middle and high school in which they fully participate in teaching and related work. This experience must be conducted in partnership with course work in Education and Training or Early Childhood and supervised by the education and training instructor.
Education and Training Supervisors
Supervising Teacher: is the teacher who teaches the Education and Training or Early Childhood courses.
Internship Supervisor: is the teacher, administrator, or professional support services staff member who supervises and mentors the intern in the appropriately assigned educational setting. This may be the same as the supervising teacher.
Education and Training Internship Requirements
Prerequisites: Students must have taken at least one course in Education and Training or Early Childhood to qualify for this experience. It is most beneficial when used as a capstone experience after completing the Education and Training or Early Childhood program of study.
Professional Work Sample Portfolio (PWS): is a snapshot of the student’s work during the Education and Training Experience. The PWS should consist of four components (1) planning, (2) implementation/teaching, (3) evaluation of student learning and (4) personal reflection.
Selection/Qualifications: Education and Training Experience candidates must:
- Have successfully completed the prerequisite courses.
- Be enrolled in grades 11-12.
- Have completed the application process.
- Be selected for participation by the Supervising Teacher.
Roles and Responsibilities: Education and Training Experiences require time, commitment and collaboration of the following partners:
- Students are responsible for conducting themselves in a professional manner. They must maintain a Professional Work Sample Portfolio.
- Parents/Guardians provide ongoing support to the student and the Education and Training Experience. They are responsible for the conduct and attendance of the intern. Parents/Guardians must provide transportation for the intern to and from the experience site if needed.
- Supervising Teacher provides assistance in locating the most beneficial experience site for each student, ongoing supervision of the student, and manages all requirements of the experience and works collaboratively in designing the learning experiences with the Experience Supervisor.
- Experience Supervisor provides opportunities for students to complete experience activities, gain valuable experience in the field of Education, and evaluates the student’s performance.
- Appropriate Placement is an actual educational setting that provides the student with the maximum opportunity to learn and gain experience in the field of education. All Education and Training Experiences must relate to the student’s career objective/pathway/program.
- Credits Earned Credit is earned for the completion of Education and Training Experience.
Supervision Teacher Requirements: must make an on-site visit to the Experience Site at least twice a month and maintain all required documentation for each student participating. The Professional Work Sample Portfolio is used to document the student’s mastery of learning and for determining grades.
Placement Restrictions or Limitations: Interns may not be placed where immediate family members will be acting as the Supervisor.
Required Documentation and Forms: The following documentation must be maintained and on file by the Supervising Teacher for each participating intern during the Education and Training Experience.
Prior to Enrollment:
- Must declare a career objective related to Education and Training or Early Childhood
- Must have completed the Education and Training Experience Application
- Must complete an interview with the Education and Training Experience teacher
Upon Placement of Student:
- Education and Training Experience Agreement
- Proof of Insurance
- Emergency Contact Form
- Student Attendance Record
- Record of Supervising Teacher Visits
- Other Forms as required by the Local Education Agency
Upon Completion of the Externship:
- Student Evaluation of Education and Training Experience
- Student Follow-up Form
- Copy of Professional Work Sample Portfolio Evaluation
Education and Training Experiences are unpaid work-based experiences.
Individual youth entrepreneurship provides an opportunity for a student to establish a business from the initial startup phase through full operation while receiving guidance from a teacher at the school. This includes beginning with an initial business idea, developing a business plan, actual start up and complete ownership. This activity may be a project for a class or a student organization. The activity is considered a paid experience because the student who actually starts a business will be receiving income from the sale of a product or providing a service. Students assume the risks of creating the entrepreneurial venture in expectation of gaining a profit or further knowledge and skills necessary for success as an entrepreneur.
It represents a uniquely comprehensive method for preparing someone to understand all aspects of running a business and learning about ‘being their own boss.’ Student entrepreneurship experiences may also take the form of school-based businesses that students help to set up and run.
Curricula that guides students through the process of creating business plans, working with local entrepreneurs and other community resources to plan and run enterprises, or any combination of these activities is vital to success. Entrepreneurship may be undertaken on or off the school site, but should be part of the school’s course work in order to be considered for academic credit.
- Provides opportunities for youth to start and operate enterprises of appropriate size and scope, in which they are personally invested in a manner that is significant to them.
- Provides an opportunity for students to learn about and utilize community resources
- Offers opportunities to apply academic knowledge such as accounting, record keeping, and economics.
- Supports the development of career readiness skills
- Develops management and critical thinking skills that can be applied throughout life in both employment and self-employment (entrepreneurship) including, but not limited to:
- Product development
- Communication (verbal, non-verbal, written)
- Customer service
- Decision making
- Locating and utilizing resources
- Complying with government regulations
- Affords the opportunity to earn money and make connections to the local and area business community
- Reinforces the concept that successful entrepreneurs take calculated risks based on demographic research and relevant information.
- Requires youth to develop a plan for a business that addresses its financial, marketing and operational aspects.
- Utilizes an action-oriented curriculum that provides age-appropriate experiential learning opportunities for which program leaders/instructors operate as coaches or facilitators.
- Enhances creativity, innovation and problem-solving skills
- Increased awareness of the entrepreneur’s role in the economy
- Expanded awareness of social responsibility and entrepreneurs’ contribution to society and local, state and national economic vitality
Steps in Planning and Implementing an Entrepreneurship Program
- Determine the purpose of the entrepreneurship program, examples may be:
- A part of the subject matter of a specific CTE course;
- A culminating project for a program of study; or
- An after-school or summer project for school credit.
- Determine how the instruction will be delivered in the areas of product development, marketing, advertising, financing, record keeping, budgeting, communication, customer service, decision making, locating and utilizing resources and complying with laws and regulations.
- Assist students in developing a business plan.
- Determine what resources will be needed to assist students.
- Develop an agreement between the student, parents, CTE instructor and school that includes:
- Description of the entrepreneurship project/business venture
- List of skills to be developed through the entrepreneurial experience
- List of the components of the business plan to be created by the student including:
- Product/service to be provided
- Proposed budget, including projected income and expenses
- Plans for financing the venture
- Marketing plan for the venture
- Develop an instrument or procedures for evaluating student learning and performance
- Provide a curriculum that is organized around the five entrepreneurial processes: Discovery, Concept Development, Resourcing, Actualization, and Harvesting.
- Use entrepreneurship as the real-world context to demonstrate the importance of academic skills, including math science, communications, digital skills, technology, geography, history, and more.
- Portray the relationship between risk and reward in the entrepreneurial process as it operates in the free-enterprise system.
- Provide opportunities for students to start and operate enterprises of an appropriate size and scope, in which they are personally invested, and in a manner that is significant to them.
- Reinforce the concept that successful entrepreneurs take calculated risks based on sound research and relevant information, including economic analysis.
- Require students to conduct a feasibility study to determine the viability of the start-up.
- Encourage/require students to develop a comprehensive business plan that addresses financial, marketing, and operational aspects.
- Generate an understanding of the many career fields that offer entrepreneurial opportunities.
- Emphasize the need to operate enterprises in a legal, ethical, and socially and environmentally responsible manner.
- Demonstrate the place for entrepreneurship and innovation in for-profit, non-profit, corporate and public sectors of the economy.
- Facilitate the discovery process and provide coaching to guide students to solutions for challenges encountered in establishing an entrepreneurial venture.
- Provide hands-on learning opportunities where students learn by doing.
- Curriculum and activities should include challenges with and without clear solutions.
- Abilities Fund
- Biz Innovator
- Blueprint for Innovation and Entrepreneurship
- Community Connections
- Comprehensive Guide to Starting a Business
- Curriki-Global Education and Learning Community
- DECA, Inc.
- Entrepreneur-in-the-Classroom (NFIB)
- Entrepreneurship in the Classroom (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City)
- EntrepreneurShip Investigation (ESI)
- Entrepreneurship, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation
- GoVenture Curricula, Board Games and Simulations
- HP Life Educator Resources
- HP Life Learning Initiative for Entrepreneurs
- Junior Achievement
- National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB)
- National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE)
- Nebraska Entrepreneurship Education
- United States Department of Commerce–Minority Business Development Agency
- United States Department of Labor
- United States Patent & Trademark Office
- United States Small Business Administration
- Venture – Entrepreneurial Expedition
HEALTH SCIENCE CLINICALS
A Health Science Clinical is a structured component of the Career and Technical Education Health Science curriculum that provides a supervised experience in an approved setting. These experiences are designed to be completed in a hospital, extended care facility, rehabilitation center, medical office, imaging laboratory, or other approved setting(s).
Health Science Clinical is a structured component of the Career and Technical Education Health Science curriculum that provides a supervised experience in an approved setting. Health Science Clinical is designed to be completed in a hospital, extended care facility, rehabilitation center, medical office, imaging laboratory, or other approved setting(s). The Health Science Clinical standards are identified in the Alabama Course of Study: Career and Technical Education as part of the coursework for Health Science.
Purpose/Objective: Occupational Preparation
Health Science Clinical provides an opportunity for students to gain knowledge and apply previously learned theory and skills in an actual health care setting. These experiences are uniquely designed to meet students’ career objectives through supervised experiences, which are coupled with related classroom instruction.
Roles and Responsibilities
Health Science Clinical requires time, commitment, collaboration of the following partners:
- Students must arrive at the clinical site at the appropriate time and in the appropriate dress. Students must comply with the rules and regulations of the school district, school, and clinical site.
- Parents/Guardians should provide ongoing support to the student and assume the responsibility for the conduct of the students. Parent/guardian is responsible for transportation arrangements for the student to and from the clinical site and will be responsible for any liability involved.
- Health Science Teachers shall secure appropriate clinical site(s) based on the student’s career objective. The teacher shall work with the clinical site(s) to develop a training plan for the student. The teacher will monitor student progress through visits and/or communication with clinical site preceptor(s) or their designee. The teacher shall meet with the student regarding his/her progress, behavior, attitude, academics, etc. and is responsible for the student’s final grade for clinical experience. The teacher is also responsible for reinforcing clinical site experiences with related classroom instruction.
- Healthcare Clinical Preceptor(s) shall provide opportunities and placements for students to apply previously learned theory and skills in healthcare settings, as well as a safe learning environment. Clinical Preceptor(s) will evaluate student performance and report to Health Science teacher.
Successful completion of a minimum of one credit in Health Science coursework is required prior to placement of a student in Health Science Clinical.
Students must be enrolled in a Health Science course.
Health Science Clinical student must:
- Be at least sixteen years of age.
- Be enrolled in a Health Science course.
- Complete a Health Science Program Application for Clinical Enrollment.
- Be capable of performing the tasks of the clinical placement.
- Be classified as an eleventh or twelfth grader.
- Be in good academic standing and have an acceptable discipline record as determined by the Health Science teacher.
Health Science Clinical provides opportunities for a student to meet their career objective and train in areas outside of their primary objective in order to gain a broader perspective. Clinical placements must also meet federal and state labor laws.
Credits will reflect the course requirements in which the clinical is incorporated.
The Health Science teacher will monitor student progress through visits and/or communication with clinical site preceptor(s) or their designee.
Placement Restrictions or Limitations
Student may not participate in a hazardous occupation as defined by state and federal labor laws. Student may be rotated to a different clinical site based on a student’s career objective or area of interest at the discretion of the Health Science teacher.
Required Documentation and Forms
The following documentation or forms must be completed and placed in the student file with the Health Science teacher for each student participating in Health Science Clinical. The documents and forms must be kept on file a minimum of 5 years.
Prior to Placement of Student:
- CPR Certification (American Red Cross or American Heart Association
- Health Science Clinical Training Agreement
- Health Science Clinical Time Sheet
- Health Science Clinical Evaluation of Student Performance
- Student Confidentiality Statement
- Other Forms/Documents as required by the Health Science Teacher, Local Education Agency, or Training Site
Prior to Enrollment:
- Career Interest/Aptitude Inventory (Assessment used to be determined by the LEA)
- Health Science Program Application
- School/LEA Clinical Regulations and Policies (To be established and approved by the LEA)
All participants in Health Science Clinical must provide proof of the following:
- Current health insurance coverage
- Liability insurance coverage
- Automobile liability insurance (if student provides own transportation)
- Hepatitis B Vaccine
- Varicella Vaccine (or diagnosis of varicella or verification of history of varicella disease)
- Current TB Skin test
- Other Forms/Documents as required by the Health Science Teacher, Local Education Agency, or Training Site
An internship is a highly structured, time-limited career preparation activity in which students are placed at a workplace for a defined period of time to participate in and observe work firsthand within a given industry. Internships often allow students to rotate through a number of departments and job functions. Internships are paid work experiences.
Purpose/Objective: Career Exploration
As an “extension” of what a student has learned, internships have specific objectives to be reached that augment a career and technical education program or academic coursework. Internships are general offered to 11th and 12th grade students or students in postsecondary education. The length of the internship is based on individual objectives that need to be defined in the training agreement between the business/employer and the school.
The Nebraska Department of Economic Development manages an internship program called InternNE. This unique program helps students find paid internships in Nebraska businesses. The program connects high school and college students and employers from across the state, providing a unique opportunity for them to co-invest in the future. Interns gain valuable business experience that will help them in future careers, while successful internships help businesses develop tomorrow’s leaders.
Internships create lasting connections between students and the region; more than 50% of interns become full-time employees at their place of internship, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers.
Guidebook for Successful Internships
The Nebraska Department of Economic Development has developed a Guidebook to provide information on creating an engaging internship for students as well as an effective program for the business. This useful guide provides the needed information for a school and business to create a meaningful internship program.
The Guidebook also includes sample job descriptions and letters to help you get started.
Pre-apprenticeship services and programs are designed to prepare individuals to enter and succeed in Registered Apprenticeship programs. These programs have a documented partnership with at least one Registered Apprenticeship program sponsor and together, they expand the participant's career pathway opportunities with industry-based training coupled with classroom instruction.
Pre-apprenticeship training is a great way for employers/sponsors to:
- Streamline the recruitment process
- Pre-screen a qualified, job-ready apprentice pool
- Diverse pool of prepared candidates
- Align training with apprenticeship standards
- Increase retention rates for registered apprenticeship participants
- Quality control over preparatory training
Pre-apprenticeship training is a great way for participants to:
- Explore and learn about exciting careers
- Qualify to meet the minimum standards for selection to a Registered Apprenticeship program
- Benefit from classroom and technology-based training
- Get a start on career-specific training with viable career pathway opportunities
- Build your literacy, math, English, and work-readiness skills employers desire
- Advance into a Registered Apprenticeship program
Registered Apprenticeship program sponsors can collaborate with and support pre-apprenticeship programs by:
- Collaborating on assessment, curriculum and preparatory training
- Helping to set quality standards
- Helping to establish competency models and training goals
- Considering direct entry and advance placement agreements
- Developing memoranda of understanding
Employers/sponsors can support pre-apprenticeship programs by:
- Articulating eligibility requirements and qualifications
- Serving on advisory committees
- Offering guidance and expertise
- Outlining industry standards
- Sharing state-of-the-art technology
Characteristics of quality pre-apprenticeship programs
Quality pre-apprenticeship programs contribute to the development of a diverse and skilled workforce by preparing participants to meet the basic qualifications for entry into one or more Registered Apprenticeship programs. Through a variety of unique designs and approaches, pre-apprenticeship programs can be adapted to meet the needs of differing populations being trained, the various employers and sponsors they serve, and specific opportunities within the local labor market.
The pre-apprenticeship quality framework
Pre-apprenticeship is defined by the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) as a program or set of strategies designed to prepare individuals to enter and succeed in a Registered Apprenticeship program and has a documented partnership with at least one, if not more, Registered Apprenticeship program(s). A quality pre-apprenticeship program is one that incorporates the following elements:
- Approved Training and Curriculum. Training and curriculum based on industry standards and approved by the documented Registered Apprenticeship partner(s) that will prepare individuals with the skills and competencies needed to enter one or more Registered Apprenticeship program(s);
- Strategies for Long-Term Success. Strategies that increase Registered Apprenticeship opportunities for under-represented, disadvantaged or low-skilled individuals, such that, upon completion, they will meet the entry requirements, gain consideration, and are prepared for success in one or more Registered Apprenticeship program(s) including the following:
- Strong recruitment strategies focused on outreach to populations under-represented in local, state, and national Registered Apprenticeship programs;
- Educational and pre-vocational services that prepare individuals to meet the entry requisites of one or more Registered Apprenticeship programs (e.g. specific career and industry awareness workshops, job readiness courses, English for speakers of other languages, Adult Basic Education, financial literacy seminars, math tutoring, etc. ); and
- Assists in exposing participants to local, state and national Registered Apprenticeship programs and provides direct assistance to participants applying to those programs;
- Access Access to Appropriate Support Services. Facilitates access to appropriate support services during the pre-apprenticeship program and a significant portion of the Registered Apprenticeship program;
- Promotes Greater Use of Registered Apprenticeship to Increase Future Opportunities. To support the ongoing sustainability of the partnership between pre-apprenticeship providers and Registered Apprenticeship sponsors, these efforts should collaboratively promote the use of Registered Apprenticeship as a preferred means for employers to develop a skilled workforce and to create career opportunities for individuals;
- Meaningful Hands-on Training that does not Displace Paid Employees. Provides hands-on training to individuals in a simulated lab experience or through volunteer opportunities, when possible, neither of which supplants a paid employee but accurately simulates the industry and occupational conditions of the partnering Registered Apprenticeship sponsor(s) while observing proper supervision and safety protocols; and
- Facilitated Entry and/or Articulation. When possible, formalized agreements exist with Registered Apprenticeship sponsors that enable individuals who have successfully completed the pre-apprenticeship program to enter directly into a Registered Apprenticeship program and/or include articulation agreements for earning advanced credit/placement for skills and competencies already acquired.
Training and Employment Notice 13-12, Defining a Quality Pre-Apprenticeship Program and Related Tools and Resources, United States Department of Labor, Employment Training Administration
Click on the .pdf file to view and download the Training and Employment Notice.
Job Training Program Coordinator
Tel: (402) 471-9928
RULE 47 ACADEMY INTERNSHIPS
In 2012, the Nebraska Unicameral passed legislation requiring the Nebraska Department of Education to establish quality standards and operational guidelines for career academy programs in Nebraska secondary schools. The intent is to ensure quality career academy programs across the state and to establish an evaluative process to measure effectiveness of career academies.
These regulations, often referred to as Rule 47, define a career academy program as:
A sequence of credit-bearing academic and career technical courses which reflect a Career Cluster selected in response to local, regional or state employment needs and demand for expertise.
In developing Rule 47, the Nebraska Department of Education researched best practices from across the nation. In addition, the requirements addressed in Rule 47 are based on the work of the National Career Academy Coalition and their National Standards of Practice. Rule 47 does require the Career Academy to conduct work-based learning that includes but is not limited to:
- Internships or workplace experiences
- Job Shadow
- Interactions with business and industry
Purpose/Objective: Career Exploration/Development
Career academies are designed to prepare students for both college and careers. They are schools within schools that link students with peers, teachers, and community partners in a structured environment that fosters academic success. Integrating workplace experiences into the career academy provides the needed real-world application of the academic and technical knowledge and skill gained through the academy program.
Nebraska Career Academy Resources
This guide explains the many different types of workplace experiences that can be implemented in a Rule 47 Approved Career Academy program.
A school-based enterprise is a simulated or actual business usually conducted on the school site as component of a CTE course. Students create and operate an economically viable venture that replicates a specific business or industry and generates revenue for the CTSO or school. School-based enterprises are activities through which students produce or provide goods or services for sale or for use by people other than themselves.
The purpose is to assist students in acquiring work experience related to their chosen career pathway. School-based enterprises are often provided in communities without a sufficient number of businesses or industry to provide student employment experiences.
Students must be currently enrolled in the sponsoring teacher’s CTE class.
The student must be:
- Approved for participation by the related CTE teacher.
- In grades 9 –12.
Roles and Responsibilities
- Students comply with the rules and regulations of the school-based enterprise.
- Parents/Guardians approve and encourage student participation in the school-based enterprise. They agree to provide transportation to and from the School-Based Enterprise if applicable.
- Career and Technical Education Teachers leads in developing an appropriate school-based enterprise. They provide supervision during the school-based enterprise and counsel the student regarding his/her job performance. They determine the student’s final grade and reinforce work-based learning experiences with related classroom instruction.
No credit is earned except as an integrated component of a CTE course.
Hours are facilitated by the sponsoring Career and Technical Education teacher. Supervision will be performed by the CTE teacher.
All students should show proof of current health insurance coverage, if applicable. If the student must drive in conjunction with the school-based enterprise, he/she must have a valid driver license and provide proof of automobile liability coverage.
Nebraska Guide to School-Based Enterprises
Download the guide.
Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services; Division of Public Schools, Florida Department of Education